English to Binisaya - Cebuano Dictionary and Thesaurus.

Dictionary Binisaya to EnglishEnglish to BinisayaSense


balaod [ba.lá.ud.] : law (n.)
Synonyms: hurisprudensiya; ordinansa

Derivatives of balaod

n. (group)1. jurisprudence, lawthe collection of rules imposed by authority.; "civilization presupposes respect for the law"; "the great problem for jurisprudence to allow freedom while enforcing order"
~ impounding, impoundment, internment, poundageplacing private property in the custody of an officer of the law.
~ award, awardinga grant made by a law court.; "he criticized the awarding of compensation by the court"
~ appointment(law) the act of disposing of property by virtue of the power of appointment.; "she allocated part of the trust to her church by appointment"
~ remit, remitment, remission(law) the act of remitting (especially the referral of a law case to another court).
~ novation(law) the replacement of one obligation by another by mutual agreement of both parties; usually the replacement of one of the original parties to a contract with the consent of the remaining party.
~ subrogation(law) the act of substituting of one creditor for another.
~ disbarmentthe act of expelling a lawyer from the practice of law.
~ chance-medleyan unpremeditated killing of a human being in self defense.
~ derogation(law) the partial taking away of the effectiveness of a law; a partial repeal or abolition of a law.; "any derogation of the common law is to be strictly construed"
~ recission, rescission(law) the act of rescinding; the cancellation of a contract and the return of the parties to the positions they would have had if the contract had not been made.; "recission may be brought about by decree or by mutual consent"
~ abatement of a nuisance, nuisance abatement(law) the removal or termination or destruction of something that has been found to be a nuisance.
~ production(law) the act of exhibiting in a court of law.; "the appellate court demanded the production of all documents"
~ practice of law, lawthe learned profession that is mastered by graduate study in a law school and that is responsible for the judicial system.; "he studied law at Yale"
~ law practicethe practice of law.
~ civil wrong, tort(law) any wrongdoing for which an action for damages may be brought.
~ juvenile delinquency, delinquencyan antisocial misdeed in violation of the law by a minor.
~ comparative negligence(law) negligence allocated between the plaintiff and the defendant with a corresponding reduction in damages paid to the plaintiff.
~ concurrent negligence(law) negligence of two of more persons acting independently; the plaintiff may sue both together or separately.
~ contributory negligence(law) behavior by the plaintiff that contributes to the harm resulting from the defendant's negligence.; "in common law any degree of contributory negligence would bar the plaintiff from collecting damages"
~ criminal negligence, culpable negligence(law) recklessly acting without reasonable caution and putting another person at risk of injury or death (or failing to do something with the same consequences).
~ neglect of duty(law) breach of a duty.
~ barratrythe offense of vexatiously persisting in inciting lawsuits and quarrels.
~ champertyan unethical agreement between an attorney and client that the attorney would sue and pay the costs of the client's suit in return for a portion of the damages awarded.; "soliciting personal injury cases may constitute champerty"
~ criminal maintenance, maintenancethe unauthorized interference in a legal action by a person having no interest in it (as by helping one party with money or otherwise to continue the action) so as to obstruct justice or promote unnecessary litigation or unsettle the peace of the community.; "unlike champerty, criminal maintenance does not necessarily involve personal profit"
~ false pretence, false pretense(law) an offense involving intent to defraud and false representation and obtaining property as a result of that misrepresentation.
~ resisting arrestphysical efforts to oppose a lawful arrest; the resistance is classified as assault and battery upon the person of the police officer attempting to make the arrest.
~ seditionan illegal action inciting resistance to lawful authority and tending to cause the disruption or overthrow of the government.
~ sex crime, sex offense, sexual abuse, sexual assaulta statutory offense that provides that it is a crime to knowingly cause another person to engage in an unwanted sexual act by force or threat.; "most states have replaced the common law definition of rape with statutes defining sexual assault"
~ kidnapping, snatch(law) the unlawful act of capturing and carrying away a person against their will and holding them in false imprisonment.
~ actual possession(law) immediate and direct physical control over property.
~ constructive possession(law) having the power and intention to have and control property but without direct control or actual presence upon it.
~ criminal possession(law) possession for which criminal sanctions are provided because the property may not lawfully be possessed or may not be possessed under certain circumstances.
~ intervention(law) a proceeding that permits a person to enter into a lawsuit already in progress; admission of person not an original party to the suit so that person can protect some right or interest that is allegedly affected by the proceedings.; "the purpose of intervention is to prevent unnecessary duplication of lawsuits"
~ objection(law) a procedure whereby a party to a suit says that a particular line of questioning or a particular witness or a piece of evidence or other matter is improper and should not be continued and asks the court to rule on its impropriety or illegality.
~ recusation(law) an objection grounded on the judge's relationship to one of the parties.
~ filibuster(law) a tactic for delaying or obstructing legislation by making long speeches.
~ debarmentthe act of prevention by legal means.; "they achieved his debarment from holding public office"
~ recusal, recusation(law) the disqualification of a judge or jury by reason of prejudice or conflict of interest; a judge can be recused by objections of either party or judges can disqualify themselves.
~ alienation(law) the voluntary and absolute transfer of title and possession of real property from one person to another.; "the power of alienation is an essential ingredient of ownership"
~ lawmaking, legislating, legislationthe act of making or enacting laws.
~ trust busting(law) government activities seeking to dissolve corporate trusts and monopolies (especially under the United States antitrust laws).
~ enactment, passagethe passing of a law by a legislative body.
~ law enforcementensuring obedience to the laws.
~ legal dutyacts which the law requires be done or forborne.
~ false imprisonment(law) confinement without legal authority.
~ imprisonmentputting someone in prison or in jail as lawful punishment.
~ re-sentencing, commutation(law) the reduction in severity of a punishment imposed by law.
~ contempta willful disobedience to or disrespect for the authority of a court or legislative body.
~ contempt of congressdeliberate obstruction of the operation of the federal legislative branch.
~ contempt of courtdisrespect for the rules of a court of law.
~ civil contempta failure to follow a court order that benefits someone else.
~ contumacywillful refusal to appear before a court or comply with a court order; can result in a finding of contempt of court.
~ criminal contemptan act of disrespect that impedes the administration of justice.
~ obstruction of justiceimpeding those who seek justice in a court (as by trying to influence or intimidate any juror or witness or officer of the court); can result in a finding of contempt of court.
~ due process, due process of law(law) the administration of justice according to established rules and principles; based on the principle that a person cannot be deprived of life or liberty or property without appropriate legal procedures and safeguards.
~ action at law, legal action, actiona judicial proceeding brought by one party against another; one party prosecutes another for a wrong done or for protection of a right or for prevention of a wrong.
~ causa, lawsuit, suit, case, causea comprehensive term for any proceeding in a court of law whereby an individual seeks a legal remedy.; "the family brought suit against the landlord"
~ civil suita lawsuit alleging violations of civil law by the defendant.
~ class-action suit, class actiona lawsuit brought by a representative member of a large group of people on behalf of all members of the group.
~ countersuita suit brought against someone who has sued you.
~ criminal suita lawsuit alleging violations of criminal law by the defendant.
~ moota hypothetical case that law students argue as an exercise.; "he organized the weekly moot"
~ bastardy proceeding, paternity suita lawsuit filed to determine the father of a child born out of wedlock (and to provide for the support of the child once paternity is determined).
~ antitrust casea legal action brought against parties who are charged with limiting free competition in the market place.
~ counterclaima claim filed in opposition to another claim in a legal action.
~ custody casea legal action to determine custody (usually of children following a divorce).
~ lis pendensa pending lawsuit.
~ legal proceeding, proceeding, proceedings(law) the institution of a sequence of steps by which legal judgments are invoked.
~ adoptiona legal proceeding that creates a parent-child relation between persons not related by blood; the adopted child is entitled to all privileges belonging to a natural child of the adoptive parents (including the right to inherit).
~ appeal(law) a legal proceeding in which the appellant resorts to a higher court for the purpose of obtaining a review of a lower court decision and a reversal of the lower court's judgment or the granting of a new trial.; "their appeal was denied in the superior court"
~ reversala judgment by a higher court that the judgment of a lower court was incorrect and should be set aside.
~ affirmationa judgment by a higher court that the judgment of a lower court was correct and should stand.
~ bankruptcya legal process intended to insure equality among the creditors of a corporation declared to be insolvent.
~ receivershipa court action that places property under the control of a receiver during litigation so that it can be preserved for the benefit of all.
~ judicial proceeding, litigationa legal proceeding in a court; a judicial contest to determine and enforce legal rights.
~ custody battlelitigation to settle custody of the children of a divorced couple.
~ vexatious litigationlitigation shown to have been instituted maliciously and without probable cause.; "he got an injunction against vexatious litigation by his enemies"
~ notification, presentmentan accusation of crime made by a grand jury on its own initiative.
~ naturalisation, naturalizationthe proceeding whereby a foreigner is granted citizenship.
~ judicial decision, judgment, judgement(law) the determination by a court of competent jurisdiction on matters submitted to it.
~ cognovit judgement, cognovit judgment, confession of judgement, confession of judgmenta judgment entered after a written confession by the debtor without the expense of ordinary legal proceedings.
~ default judgement, default judgment, judgement by default, judgment by defaulta judgment entered in favor of the plaintiff when the defendant defaults (fails to appear in court).
~ non pros, non prosequitura judgment entered in favor of the defendant when the plaintiff has not continued his action (e.g., has not appeared in court).
~ final decision, final judgmenta judgment disposing of the case before the court; after the judgment (or an appeal from it) is rendered all that remains is to enforce the judgment.
~ judgement in personam, judgment in personam, personal judgement, personal judgmenta judgment rendered against an individual (or corporation) for the payment of money damages.
~ judgement in rem, judgment in rema judgment pronounced on the status of some particular subject or property or thing (as opposed to one pronounced on persons).
~ dismissal, judgement of dismissal, judgment of dismissala judgment disposing of the matter without a trial.
~ judgement on the merits, judgment on the meritsjudgment rendered through analysis and adjudication of the factual issues presented.
~ judgement on the pleadings, judgment on the pleadings, summary judgement, summary judgmenta judgment rendered by the court prior to a verdict because no material issue of fact exists and one party or the other is entitled to a judgment as a matter of law.
~ ruling, opinionthe reason for a court's judgment (as opposed to the decision itself).
~ bakke decisiona ruling by the Supreme Court on affirmative action; the Court ruled in 1978 that medical schools are entitled to consider race as a factor in their admission policy.
~ findingthe decision of a court on issues of fact or law.
~ finding of fact, verdict(law) the findings of a jury on issues of fact submitted to it for decision; can be used in formulating a judgment.
~ conclusion of law, finding of lawa finding as to the applicability of a rule of law to particular facts.
~ compromise verdicta verdict resulting from improper compromises between jurors on material issues.
~ directed verdicta verdict entered by the court in a jury trial without consideration by the jury.; "there cannot be a directed verdict of guilty in a criminal trial"
~ false verdicta manifestly unjust verdict; not true to the evidence.
~ general verdictan ordinary verdict declaring which party prevails without any special findings of fact.
~ quotient verdictan improper and unacceptable kind of compromise verdict.
~ special verdicta verdict rendered on certain specific factual issues posed by the court without finding for one party or the other.
~ acquittala judgment of not guilty.
~ murder convictionconviction for murder.
~ rape convictionconviction for rape.
~ robbery convictionconviction for robbery.
~ dispossession, legal ouster, evictionthe expulsion of someone (such as a tenant) from the possession of land by process of law.
~ oustera wrongful dispossession.
~ actual evictionthe physical ouster of a tenant from the leased premises; the tenant is relieved of any further duty to pay rent.
~ constructive eviction, evictionaction by a landlord that compels a tenant to leave the premises (as by rendering the premises unfit for occupancy); no physical expulsion or legal process is involved.
~ retaliatory evictionan eviction in reprisal for the tenant's good-faith complaints against the landlord; illegal in many states.
~ legalisation, legalization, legitimationthe act of making lawful.
~ legitimationthe act of rendering a person legitimate.; "he has filial rights because he obtained letters of legitimation from the king"; "his parents' subsequent marriage resulted in his legitimation"
~ trial(law) the determination of a person's innocence or guilt by due process of law.; "he had a fair trial and the jury found him guilty"; "most of these complaints are settled before they go to trial"
~ scopes triala highly publicized trial in 1925 when John Thomas Scopes violated a Tennessee state law by teaching evolution in high school; Scopes was prosecuted by William Jennings Bryan and defended by Clarence Darrow; Scopes was convicted but the verdict was later reversed.
~ review(law) a judicial reexamination of the proceedings of a court (especially by an appellate court).
~ judicial reviewreview by a court of law of actions of a government official or entity or of some other legally appointed person or body or the review by an appellate court of the decision of a trial court.
~ pleaan answer indicating why a suit should be dismissed.
~ double jeopardythe prosecution of a defendant for a criminal offense for which he has already been tried; prohibited in the fifth amendment to the United States Constitution.
~ criminal prosecution, prosecutionthe institution and conduct of legal proceedings against a defendant for criminal behavior.
~ test case, test suita representative legal action whose outcome is likely to become a precedent.
~ demurrer, denial, defence, defensea defendant's answer or plea denying the truth of the charges against him.; "he gave evidence for the defense"
~ entrapmenta defense that claims the defendant would not have broken the law if not tricked into doing it by law enforcement officials.
~ mistriala trial that is invalid or inconclusive.
~ retriala new trial in which issues already litigated and to which the court has already rendered a verdict or decision are reexamined by the same court; occurs when the initial trial is found to have been improper or unfair due to procedural errors.
~ hearing(law) a proceeding (usually by a court) where evidence is taken for the purpose of determining an issue of fact and reaching a decision based on that evidence.
~ administrative hearinga hearing that takes place outside the judicial process before hearing examiners who have been granted judicial authority specifically for the purpose of conducting such hearings.
~ competence hearinga hearing to determine legal capacity (to determine whether the defendant can understand the charges and cooperate with a lawyer in preparing a defense).
~ fair hearinga hearing that is granted in extraordinary situations where the normal judicial process would be inadequate to secure due process because the person would be harmed or denied their rights before a judicial remedy became available (as in deportation or loss of welfare benefits).
~ quo warrantoa hearing to determine by what authority someone has an office or franchise or liberty.
~ divorce, divorcementthe legal dissolution of a marriage.
~ legal separation, separation(law) the cessation of cohabitation of man and wife (either by mutual agreement or under a court order).
~ condemnation(law) the act of condemning (as land forfeited for public use) or judging to be unfit for use (as a food product or an unsafe building).
~ drug warconflict between law enforcement and those who deal in illegal drugs.
~ invalidation, annulment(law) a formal termination (of a relationship or a judicial proceeding etc).
~ dissolution of marriagean annulment of a marriage.
~ free pardon, amnesty, pardonthe formal act of liberating someone.
~ spoliation(law) the intentional destruction of a document or an alteration of it that destroys its value as evidence.
~ permissive waste, waste(law) reduction in the value of an estate caused by act or neglect.
~ parole(law) a conditional release from imprisonment that entitles the person to serve the remainder of the sentence outside the prison as long as the terms of release are complied with.
~ probation(law) a way of dealing with offenders without imprisoning them; a defendant found guilty of a crime is released by the court without imprisonment subject to conditions imposed by the court.; "probation is part of the sentencing process"
~ reprieve, respitethe act of reprieving; postponing or remitting punishment.
~ bar(law) a railing that encloses the part of the courtroom where the judges and lawyers sit and the case is tried.; "spectators were not allowed past the bar"
~ bench(law) the seat for judges in a courtroom.
~ courtroom, courta room in which a lawcourt sits.; "television cameras were admitted in the courtroom"
~ courthousea building that houses judicial courts.
~ dockan enclosure in a court of law where the defendant sits during the trial.
~ messuage(law) a dwelling house and its adjacent buildings and the adjacent land used by the household.
~ color of law, colour of lawa mere semblance of legal right; something done with the apparent authority of law but actually in contravention of law.; "the plaintiff claimed that under color of law the officer had deprived him of his civil rights"
~ effect, force(of a law) having legal validity.; "the law is still in effect"
~ infection(international law) illegality that taints or contaminates a ship or cargo rendering it liable to seizure.
~ advowsonthe right in English law of presenting a nominee to a vacant ecclesiastical benefice.
~ human right(law) any basic right or freedom to which all human beings are entitled and in whose exercise a government may not interfere (including rights to life and liberty as well as freedom of thought and expression and equality before the law).
~ easement(law) the privilege of using something that is not your own (as using another's land as a right of way to your own land).
~ privilege(law) the right to refuse to divulge information obtained in a confidential relationship.
~ entitlementright granted by law or contract (especially a right to benefits).; "entitlements make up the major part of the federal budget"
~ civil rightright or rights belonging to a person by reason of citizenship including especially the fundamental freedoms and privileges guaranteed by the 13th and 14th amendments and subsequent acts of Congress including the right to legal and social and economic equality.
~ civil libertyfundamental individual right protected by law and expressed as immunity from unwarranted governmental interference.
~ habeas corpusthe civil right to obtain a writ of habeas corpus as protection against illegal imprisonment.
~ freedom of religiona civil right guaranteed by the First Amendment to the US Constitution.
~ freedom of speecha civil right guaranteed by the First Amendment to the US Constitution.
~ freedom of the pressa right guaranteed by the First Amendment to the US Constitution.
~ freedom of assemblythe right to peaceably assemble and to petition the government for redress of grievances; guaranteed by the First Amendment to the US Constitution.
~ freedom to bear armsa right guaranteed by the 2nd amendment to the US Constitution.
~ freedom from search and seizurea right guaranteed by the 4th amendment to the US Constitution.
~ right to due processa right guaranteed by the Fifth Amendment to the US Constitution; reaffirmed by the Fourteenth Amendment.
~ freedom from self-incrimination, privilege against self incriminationthe civil right (guaranteed by the Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution) to refuse to answer questions or otherwise give testimony against yourself.
~ freedom from double jeopardya civil right guaranteed by the Fifth Amendment to the US Constitution.
~ right to speedy and public trial by jurya civil right guaranteed by the 6th amendment to the US Constitution.
~ right to an attorneya civil right guaranteed by the 6th amendment to the US Constitution.
~ right to confront accusorsa right guaranteed by the 6th amendment to the US Constitution.
~ freedom from cruel and unusual punishmenta right guaranteed by the 8th amendment to the US Constitution.
~ freedom from involuntary servitudea civil right guaranteed by the 13th amendment to the US Constitution.
~ equal protection of the lawsa right guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution and by the due-process clause of the Fifth Amendment.
~ right to vote, suffrage, votea legal right guaranteed by the 15th amendment to the US Constitution; guaranteed to women by the 19th amendment.; "American women got the vote in 1920"
~ freedom from discriminationimmunity from discrimination on the basis of race or sex or nationality or religion or age; guaranteed by federal laws of the United States.
~ equal opportunitythe right to equivalent opportunities for employment regardless of race or color or sex or national origin.
~ eminent domainthe right of the state to take private property for public use; the Fifth Amendment that was added to the Constitution of the United States requires that just compensation be made.
~ enfranchisement, franchisea statutory right or privilege granted to a person or group by a government (especially the rights of citizenship and the right to vote).
~ patent rightthe right granted by a patent; especially the exclusive right to an invention.
~ right of electionin probate law: the legal right of a surviving spouse to elect to take either what the deceased spouse gave under the will or the share of the estate as set forth by statute.
~ right of entrythe legal right to take possession of real estate in a peaceable manner.
~ right of re-entrythe legal right to resume possession (a right that was reserved when a former possession was parted with).
~ right of offset(banking) the legal right of a bank to seize deposited funds to cover a loan that is in default.
~ right of privacya legal right (not explicitly provided in the United States Constitution) to be left alone; the right to live life free from unwarranted publicity.
~ enjoyment, use(law) the exercise of the legal right to enjoy the benefits of owning property.; "we were given the use of his boat"
~ usufructa legal right to use and derive profit from property belonging to someone else provided that the property itself is not injured in any way.
~ visitation rightthe right granted by a court to a parent (or other relative) who is deprived of custody of a child to visit the child on a regular basis.
~ jurisdiction, legal power(law) the right and power to interpret and apply the law.; "courts having jurisdiction in this district"
~ venterthe womb.; "`in venter' is legal terminology for `conceived but not yet born'"
~ presumption(law) an inference of the truth of a fact from other facts proved or admitted or judicially noticed.
~ rationale, principle(law) an explanation of the fundamental reasons (especially an explanation of the working of some device in terms of laws of nature).; "the rationale for capital punishment"; "the principles of internal-combustion engines"
~ malice aforethought, mens rea(law) criminal intent; the thoughts and intentions behind a wrongful act (including knowledge that the act is illegal); often at issue in murder trials.
~ premeditation(law) thought and intention to commit a crime well in advance of the crime; goes to show criminal intent.
~ mitigating circumstance(law) a circumstance that does not exonerate a person but which reduces the penalty associated with the offense.
~ probable cause(law) evidence sufficient to warrant an arrest or search and seizure.; "a magistrate determined that there was probable cause to search the house"
~ nuisance(law) a broad legal concept including anything that disturbs the reasonable use of your property or endangers life and health or is offensive.
~ legal systema system for interpreting and enforcing the laws.
~ bailthe legal system that allows an accused person to be temporarily released from custody (usually on condition that a sum of money guarantees their appearance at trial).; "he is out on bail"
~ jury systema legal system for determining the facts at issue in a law suit.
~ patent systema legal system for protecting the rights of inventors.
~ tax systema legal system for assessing and collecting taxes.
~ electoral system, voting systema legal system for making democratic choices.
~ judicial doctrine, judicial principle, legal principle(law) a principle underlying the formulation of jurisprudence.
~ jus sanguinisthe principle that a person's nationality at birth is the same as that of his natural parents.
~ jus solithe principle that a person's nationality at birth is determined by the place of birth.
~ pre-emption, preemptionthe judicial principle asserting the supremacy of federal over state legislation on the same subject.
~ relation back, relation(law) the principle that an act done at a later time is deemed by law to have occurred at an earlier time.; "his attorney argued for the relation back of the amended complaint to the time the initial complaint was filed"
~ dba, doing business as, fictitious name, assumed name(law) a name under which a corporation conducts business that is not the legal name of the corporation as shown in its articles of incorporation.
~ rundown, summation, summing upa concluding summary (as in presenting a case before a law court).
~ legal document, legal instrument, official document, instrument(law) a document that states some contractual relationship or grants some right.
~ derivative instrument, derivativea financial instrument whose value is based on another security.
~ negotiable instrumentan unconditional order or promise to pay an amount of money.
~ docket(law) the calendar of a court; the list of cases to be tried or a summary of the court's activities.
~ passporta document issued by a country to a citizen allowing that person to travel abroad and re-enter the home country.
~ ship's papersofficial papers which a ship is legally required to have; related to ownership, cargo, etc..
~ manifesta customs document listing the contents put on a ship or plane.
~ copy, transcripta reproduction of a written record (e.g. of a legal or school record).
~ joint resolutiona resolution passed by both houses of Congress which becomes legally binding when signed by the Chief Executive (or passed over the Chief Executive's veto).
~ debenturea certificate or voucher acknowledging a debt.
~ power of attorneya legal instrument authorizing someone to act as the grantor's agent.
~ letters of administrationlegal document naming someone to administer an estate when no executor has been named.
~ letters testamentarya legal document from a probate court or court officer informing you of your appointment as executor of a will and empowering you to discharge those responsibilities.
~ act, enactmenta legal document codifying the result of deliberations of a committee or society or legislative body.
~ lawlegal document setting forth rules governing a particular kind of activity.; "there is a law against kidnapping"
~ lawlegal document setting forth rules governing a particular kind of activity.; "there is a law against kidnapping"
~ anti-drug lawa law forbidding the sale or use of narcotic drugs.
~ anti-racketeering law, racketeer influenced and corrupt organizations act, rico, rico actlaw intended to eradicate organized crime by establishing strong sanctions and forfeiture provisions.
~ antitrust law, antitrust legislationlaw intended to promote free competition in the market place by outlawing monopolies.
~ statute of limitationsa statute prescribing the time period during which legal action can be taken.
~ constitution, fundamental law, organic lawlaw determining the fundamental political principles of a government.
~ constitution of the united states, u.s. constitution, united states constitution, us constitution, constitutionthe constitution written at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 1787 and subsequently ratified by the original thirteen states.
~ public lawa law affecting the public at large.
~ legislation, statute lawlaw enacted by a legislative body.
~ enabling legislationlegislation that gives appropriate officials the authority to implement or enforce the law.
~ federal job safety law, occupational safety and health acta law passed by the United States Congress that created the Occupational Safety and Health Administration to prevent employees from being injured or contracting diseases in the course of their employment.
~ advice and consenta legal expression in the United States Constitution that allows the Senate to constrain the President's powers of appointment and treaty-making.
~ statute booka record of the whole body of legislation in a given jurisdiction.
~ bill, measurea statute in draft before it becomes law.; "they held a public hearing on the bill"
~ appropriation billa legislative act proposing to authorize the expenditure of public funds for a specified purpose.
~ bill of attaindera legislative act finding a person guilty of treason or felony without a trial.; "bills of attainder are prohibited by the Constitution of the United States"
~ bottle billa statute that would require merchants to reclaim used bottles.
~ farm billa statute that would regulate farm production and prices.
~ trade billa statute that would regulate foreign trade.
~ blue lawa statute regulating work on Sundays.
~ blue sky lawa state law regulating the sale of securities in an attempt to control the sale of securities in fraudulent enterprises.
~ gag lawany law that limits freedom of the press.
~ game lawa regulation intended to manage or preserve game animals.
~ homestead lawa law conferring privileges on owners of homesteads.
~ poor lawa law providing support for the poor.
~ riot acta former English law requiring mobs to disperse after a magistrate reads the law to them.
~ criminal lawthe body of law dealing with crimes and their punishment.
~ court ordera writ issued by a court of law requiring a person to do something or to refrain from doing something.
~ decree, fiat, edict, rescript, ordera legally binding command or decision entered on the court record (as if issued by a court or judge).; "a friend in New Mexico said that the order caused no trouble out there"
~ consent decreean agreement between two parties that is sanctioned by the court; for example, a company might agree to stop certain questionable practices without admitting guilt.
~ curfewan order that after a specific time certain activities (as being outside on the streets) are prohibited.
~ decree nisia decree issued on a first petition for divorce; becomes absolute at some later date.
~ divestiturean order to an offending party to rid itself of property; it has the purpose of depriving the defendant of the gains of wrongful behavior.; "the court found divestiture to be necessary in preventing a monopoly"
~ judicial separation, legal separationa judicial decree regulating the rights and responsibilities of a married couple living apart.
~ prohibitiona law forbidding the sale of alcoholic beverages.; "in 1920 the 18th amendment to the Constitution established prohibition in the US"
~ staya judicial order forbidding some action until an event occurs or the order is lifted.; "the Supreme Court has the power to stay an injunction pending an appeal to the whole Court"
~ stay of executionan order whereby a judgment is precluded from being executed for a specific period of time.
~ cease and desist order, enjoining, enjoinment, injunction(law) a judicial remedy issued in order to prohibit a party from doing or continuing to do a certain activity.; "injunction were formerly obtained by writ but now by a judicial order"
~ mandatory injunctioninjunction requiring the performance of some specific act.
~ final injunction, permanent injunctioninjunction issued on completion of a trial.
~ interlocutory injunction, temporary injunctioninjunction issued during a trial to maintain the status quo or preserve the subject matter of the litigation until the trial is over.
~ brief, legal briefa document stating the facts and points of law of a client's case.
~ amicus curiae briefa brief presented by someone interested in influencing the outcome of a lawsuit but who is not a party to it.
~ testament, willa legal document declaring a person's wishes regarding the disposal of their property when they die.
~ probate, probate willa judicial certificate saying that a will is genuine and conferring on the executors the power to administer the estate.
~ codicila supplement to a will; a testamentary instrument intended to alter an already executed will.
~ living willa document written by someone still legally capable requesting that he should be allowed to die if subsequently severely disabled or suffering terminal illness.; "after he discovered he had AIDS he drew up a living will"
~ deed, deed of conveyance, titlea legal document signed and sealed and delivered to effect a transfer of property and to show the legal right to possess it.; "he signed the deed"; "he kept the title to his car in the glove compartment"
~ assignmentthe instrument by which a claim or right or interest or property is transferred from one person to another.
~ bill of salea deed transferring personal property.
~ deed polla deed made and executed by only one party.
~ enfeoffmentunder the feudal system, the deed by which a person was given land in exchange for a pledge of service.
~ mortgage deeddeed embodying a mortgage.
~ title deeda legal document proving a person's right to property.
~ deed of trust, trust deeda written instrument legally conveying property to a trustee often used to secure an obligation such as a mortgage or promissory note.
~ conveyancedocument effecting a property transfer.
~ quitclaim, quitclaim deeddocument transferring title or right or claim to another.
~ munimentsdeeds and other documentary evidence of title to land.
~ warranta writ from a court commanding police to perform specified acts.
~ search warranta warrant authorizing law enforcement officials to search for objects or people involved in the commission of a crime and to produce them in court; the warrant describes the locations where the officials may search.
~ arrest warrant, bench warranta warrant authorizing law enforcement officials to apprehend an offender and bring that person to court.
~ death warranta warrant to execute the death sentence.
~ lettre de cachet, cacheta warrant formerly issued by a French king who could warrant imprisonment or death in a signed letter under his seal.
~ reprievea warrant granting postponement (usually to postpone the execution of the death sentence).
~ commutationa warrant substituting a lesser punishment for a greater one.
~ license, permit, licencea legal document giving official permission to do something.
~ letters patent, patentan official document granting a right or privilege.
~ judgement, legal opinion, opinion, judgmentthe legal document stating the reasons for a judicial decision.; "opinions are usually written by a single judge"
~ concurring opinionan opinion that agrees with the court's disposition of the case but is written to express a particular judge's reasoning.
~ dissenting opinionan opinion that disagrees with the court's disposition of the case.
~ majority opinionthe opinion joined by a majority of the court (generally known simply as `the opinion').
~ amnesty, pardona warrant granting release from punishment for an offense.
~ acquittance, releasea legal document evidencing the discharge of a debt or obligation.
~ judicial writ, writ(law) a legal document issued by a court or judicial officer.
~ assizean ancient writ issued by a court of assize to the sheriff for the recovery of property.
~ certiorari, writ of certioraria common law writ issued by a superior court to one of inferior jurisdiction demanding the record of a particular case.
~ writ of execution, executiona routine court order that attempts to enforce the judgment that has been granted to a plaintiff by authorizing a sheriff to carry it out.
~ execution of instrument, execution(law) the completion of a legal instrument (such as a contract or deed) by signing it (and perhaps sealing and delivering it) so that it becomes legally binding and enforceable.
~ habeas corpus, writ of habeas corpusa writ ordering a prisoner to be brought before a judge.
~ venire faciasa judicial writ ordering a sheriff to summon people for jury duty.
~ mandamus, writ of mandamusan extraordinary writ commanding an official to perform a ministerial act that the law recognizes as an absolute duty and not a matter for the official's discretion; used only when all other judicial remedies fail.
~ attachmenta writ authorizing the seizure of property that may be needed for the payment of a judgment in a judicial proceeding.
~ fieri faciasa writ ordering a levy on the belongings of a debtor to satisfy the debt.
~ scire faciasa judicial writ based on some record and requiring the party against whom it is brought to show cause why the record should not be enforced or annulled.
~ sequestrationa writ that authorizes the seizure of property.
~ writ of detinuea writ ordering the release of goods that have been unlawfully detained.
~ writ of electiona writ ordering the holding of an election.
~ writ of errora judicial writ from an appellate court ordering the court of record to produce the records of trial.
~ writ of prohibitiona judicial writ from a higher court ordering a lower court not to exercise jurisdiction in a particular case.
~ writ of righta writ ordering that land be restored to its rightful owner.
~ authorisation, authorization, mandatea document giving an official instruction or command.
~ process, summonsa writ issued by authority of law; usually compels the defendant's attendance in a civil suit; failure to appear results in a default judgment against the defendant.
~ subpoena, subpoena ad testificanduma writ issued by court authority to compel the attendance of a witness at a judicial proceeding; disobedience may be punishable as a contempt of court.
~ subpoena duces tecuma writ issued by a court at the request of one of the parties to a suit; it requires a witness to bring to court or to a deposition any relevant documents under the witness's control.
~ gag ordera court order restricting information or comment by the participants involved in a lawsuit.; "imposing a gag order on members of the press violates the First Amendment"
~ garnishmenta court order to an employer to withhold all or part of an employee's wages and to send the money to the court or to the person who won a lawsuit against the employee.
~ interdict, interdictiona court order prohibiting a party from doing a certain activity.
~ citationa summons that commands the appearance of a party at a proceeding.
~ process of monition, monitiona summons issued after the filing of a libel or claim directing all parties concerned to show cause why the judgment asked for should not be granted.
~ ticketa summons issued to an offender (especially to someone who violates a traffic regulation).
~ bill of particularsthe particular events to be dealt with in a criminal trial; advises the defendant and the court of the facts the defendant will be required to meet.
~ pleading(law) a statement in legal and logical form stating something on behalf of a party to a legal proceeding.
~ affirmative pleadingany defensive pleading that affirms facts rather than merely denying the facts alleged by the plaintiff.
~ alternative pleading, pleading in the alternativea pleading that alleges facts so separate that it is difficult to determine which facts the person intends to rely on.
~ answerthe principal pleading by the defendant in response to plaintiff's complaint; in criminal law it consists of the defendant's plea of `guilty' or `not guilty' (or nolo contendere); in civil law it must contain denials of all allegations in the plaintiff's complaint that the defendant hopes to controvert and it can contain affirmative defenses or counterclaims.
~ evasive answer(law) an answer by a defendant that fails to admit or deny the allegations set forth in the complaint.
~ plea(law) a defendant's answer by a factual matter (as distinguished from a demurrer).
~ counterpleaa plaintiff's reply to a defendant's plea.
~ dilatory pleaa plea that delays the action without settling the cause of action; it can challenge the jurisdiction or claim disability of the defendant etc. (such defenses are usually raised in the defendant's answer).
~ libelthe written statement of a plaintiff explaining the cause of action (the defamation) and any relief he seeks.
~ defective pleadingany pleading that fails to conform in form or substance to minimum standards of accuracy or sufficiency.
~ demurrer(law) any pleading that attacks the legal sufficiency of the opponent's pleadings.
~ rebuttal, rebutter(law) a pleading by the defendant in reply to a plaintiff's surrejoinder.
~ replication(law) a pleading made by a plaintiff in reply to the defendant's plea or answer.
~ rejoinder(law) a pleading made by a defendant in response to the plaintiff's replication.
~ special pleading(law) a pleading that alleges new facts in avoidance of the opposing allegations.
~ surrebuttal, surrebutter(law) a pleading by the plaintiff in reply to the defendant's rebutter.
~ surrejoinder(law) a pleading by the plaintiff in reply to the defendant's rejoinder.
~ plea bargain, plea bargaining(criminal law) a negotiation in which the defendant agrees to enter a plea of guilty to a lesser charge and the prosecutor agrees to drop a more serious charge.; "his admission was part of a plea bargain with the prosecutor"; "plea bargaining helps to stop the courts becoming congested"
~ legislative act, statutean act passed by a legislative body.
~ enabling act, enabling clausea provision in a law that confers on appropriate officials the power to implement or enforce the law.
~ ordinancea statute enacted by a city government.
~ special acta legislative act that applies only to a particular person or particular district.
~ rule of evidence(law) a rule of law whereby any alleged matter of fact that is submitted for investigation at a judicial trial is established or disproved.
~ legal codea code of laws adopted by a state or nation.; "a code of laws"
~ penal codethe legal code governing crimes and their punishment.
~ u. s. code, united states codea consolidation and codification by subject matter of the general and permanent laws of the United States; is prepared and published by a unit of the United States House of Representatives.
~ building codeset of standards established and enforced by local government for the structural safety of buildings.
~ fire codeset of standards established and enforced by government for fire prevention and safety in case of fire as in fire escapes etc.
~ health code, sanitary codeset of standards established and enforced by government for health requirements as in plumbing etc.
~ specification(patent law) a document drawn up by the applicant for a patent of invention that provides an explicit and detailed description of the nature and use of an invention.
~ secret approval, tacit consent, connivance(law) tacit approval of someone's wrongdoing.
~ libela false and malicious publication printed for the purpose of defaming a living person.
~ bill of rightsa statement of fundamental rights and privileges (especially the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution).
~ first amendmentan amendment to the Constitution of the United States guaranteeing the right of free expression; includes freedom of assembly and freedom of the press and freedom of religion and freedom of speech.
~ fifth amendmentan amendment to the Constitution of the United States that imposes restrictions on the government's prosecution of persons accused of crimes; mandates due process of law and prohibits self-incrimination and double jeopardy; requires just compensation if private property is taken for public use.
~ fourteenth amendmentan amendment to the Constitution of the United States adopted in 1868; extends the guarantees of the Bill of Rights to the states as well as to the federal government.
~ eighteenth amendmentan amendment to the Constitution of the United States adopted in 1920; prohibited the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages; repealed in 1932.
~ nineteenth amendmentan amendment to the Constitution of the United States adopted in 1920; guarantees that no state can deny the right to vote on the basis of sex.
~ cause of actiona claim sufficient to demand judicial attention; the facts that give rise to right of action.
~ submission(law) a contention presented by a lawyer to a judge or jury as part of the case he is arguing.
~ evidence(law) all the means by which any alleged matter of fact whose truth is investigated at judicial trial is established or disproved.
~ testimonya solemn statement made under oath.
~ corpus delictithe body of evidence that constitute the offence; the objective proof that a crime has been committed (sometimes mistakenly thought to refer to the body of a homicide victim).
~ direct evidenceevidence (usually the testimony of a witness) directly related to the fact in dispute.
~ res gestaerule of evidence that covers words that are so closely associated with an occurrence that the words are considered part of the occurrence and as such their report does not violate the hearsay rule.
~ circumstantial evidence, indirect evidenceevidence providing only a basis for inference about the fact in dispute.
~ corroborating evidenceadditional evidence or evidence of different kind that supports a proof already offered in a proceeding.
~ hearsay evidenceevidence based on what someone has told the witness and not of direct knowledge.
~ state's evidenceevidence for the prosecution in criminal proceedings.
~ declaration(law) unsworn statement that can be admitted in evidence in a legal transaction.; "his declaration of innocence"
~ attestationthe action of bearing witness.
~ affidavitwritten declaration made under oath; a written statement sworn to be true before someone legally authorized to administer an oath.
~ verification(law) an affidavit attached to a statement confirming the truth of that statement.
~ subornationperjured testimony that someone was persuaded to give.
~ alibi(law) a defense by an accused person purporting to show that he or she could not have committed the crime in question.
~ caveat(law) a formal notice filed with a court or officer to suspend a proceeding until filer is given a hearing.; "a caveat filed against the probate of a will"
~ jactitation(law) a false boast that can harm others; especially a false claim to be married to someone (formerly actionable at law).
~ dictum, obiter dictuman opinion voiced by a judge on a point of law not directly bearing on the case in question and therefore not binding.
~ written agreementa legal document summarizing the agreement between parties.
~ matter of law, question of lawa disputed legal contention that is generally left for a judge to decide.
~ sidebar(law) a courtroom conference between the lawyers and the judge that is held out of the jury's hearing.
~ pretrial, pretrial conference(law) a conference held before the trial begins to bring the parties together to outline discovery proceedings and to define the issues to be tried; more useful in civil than in criminal cases.
~ arbitration(law) the hearing and determination of a dispute by an impartial referee agreed to by both parties (often used to settle disputes between labor and management).
~ citation(law) the act of citing (as of spoken words or written passages or legal precedents etc.).
~ deposition(law) a pretrial interrogation of a witness; usually conducted in a lawyer's office.
~ cross-examination(law) close questioning of a hostile witness in a court of law to discredit or throw a new light on the testimony already provided in direct examination.
~ direct examination(law) the initial questioning of a witness by the party that called the witness.
~ redirect examination, reexamination(law) questioning of a witness by the party that called the witness after that witness has been subject to cross-examination.
~ disclaimer(law) a voluntary repudiation of a person's legal claim to something.
~ demur, demurral, demurrer(law) a formal objection to an opponent's pleadings.
~ dissent(law) the difference of one judge's opinion from that of the majority.; "he expressed his dissent in a contrary opinion"
~ discovery(law) compulsory pretrial disclosure of documents relevant to a case; enables one side in a litigation to elicit information from the other side concerning the facts in the case.
~ judicial admission, stipulation(law) an agreement or concession made by parties in a judicial proceeding (or by their attorneys) relating to the business before the court; must be in writing unless they are part of the court record.; "a stipulation of fact was made in order to avoid delay"
~ allegation(law) a formal accusation against somebody (often in a court of law).; "an allegation of malpractice"
~ subornation of perjury(law) inducing someone to make a false oath as part of a judicial proceeding.; "to prove subordination of perjury you must prove the perjury and also prove that the perjured statement was procured by the accused suborner who knew that it would be false"
~ aggregation, collection, accumulation, assemblageseveral things grouped together or considered as a whole.
~ combination in restraint of trade(law) any monopoly or contract or combination or conspiracy intended to restrain commerce (which are illegal according to antitrust laws of the United States).
~ law firma firm of lawyers.
~ conservative judaismJews who keep some of the requirements of the Mosaic law but allow for adaptation of other requirements (as some of the dietary laws) to fit modern circumstances.
~ legal community, legal profession, barthe body of individuals qualified to practice law in a particular jurisdiction.; "he was admitted to the bar in New Jersey"
~ department of justice, doj, justice department, justicethe United States federal department responsible for enforcing federal laws (including the enforcement of all civil rights legislation); created in 1870.
~ bja, bureau of justice assistancethe bureau in the Department of Justice that assists local criminal justice systems to reduce or prevent crime and violence and drug abuse.
~ fbi, federal bureau of investigationa federal law enforcement agency that is the principal investigative arm of the Department of Justice.
~ circuit court of appealsone of the twelve federal United States courts of appeals that cover a group of states known as a `circuit'.
~ circuit(law) a judicial division of a state or the United States (so-called because originally judges traveled and held court in different locations); one of the twelve groups of states in the United States that is covered by a particular circuit court of appeals.
~ military courta judicial court of commissioned officers for the discipline and punishment of military personnel.
~ moot courta mock court where law students argue hypothetical cases.
~ night courta criminal court (in large cities) that sits at night.
~ provost courta military court for trying people charged with minor offenses in an occupied area.
~ police courta court that has power to prosecute for minor offenses and to bind over for trial in a superior court anyone accused of serious offenses.
~ probate courta court having jurisdiction over the probate of wills and the administration of estates.
~ quarter sessionsa local court with criminal jurisdiction and sometimes administrative functions.
~ superior courtany court that has jurisdiction above an inferior court.
~ supreme court, supreme court of the united states, united states supreme courtthe highest federal court in the United States; has final appellate jurisdiction and has jurisdiction over all other courts in the nation.
~ high court, state supreme court, supreme courtthe highest court in most states of the United States.
~ traffic courta court that has power to prosecute for traffic offenses.
~ trial courtthe first court before which the facts of a case are decided.
~ judicial branchthe branch of the United States government responsible for the administration of justice.
~ venire, panel(law) a group of people summoned for jury service (from whom a jury will be chosen).
~ grand jurya jury to inquire into accusations of crime and to evaluate the grounds for indictments.
~ hung jurya jury that is unable to agree on a verdict (the result is a mistrial).
~ petit jury, petty jurya jury of 12 to determine the facts and decide the issue in civil or criminal proceedings.
~ blue ribbon jury, special jurya jury whose members are selected for special knowledge for a case involving complicated issues.
~ administrative lawthe body of rules and regulations and orders and decisions created by administrative agencies of government.
~ administrative lawthe body of rules and regulations and orders and decisions created by administrative agencies of government.
~ canon law, ecclesiastical lawthe body of codified laws governing the affairs of a Christian church.
~ civil lawthe body of laws established by a state or nation for its own regulation.
~ civil lawthe body of laws established by a state or nation for its own regulation.
~ case law, common law, precedenta system of jurisprudence based on judicial precedents rather than statutory laws.; "common law originated in the unwritten laws of England and was later applied in the United States"
~ case law, common law, precedenta system of jurisprudence based on judicial precedents rather than statutory laws.; "common law originated in the unwritten laws of England and was later applied in the United States"
~ international law, law of nationsthe body of laws governing relations between nations.
~ international law, law of nationsthe body of laws governing relations between nations.
~ admiralty law, marine law, maritime lawthe branch of international law that deals with territorial and international waters or with shipping or with ocean fishery etc..
~ law of the landa phrase used in the Magna Carta to refer to the then established law of the kingdom (as distinct from Roman or civil law); today it refers to fundamental principles of justice commensurate with due process.; "the United States Constitution declares itself to be `the supreme law of the land'"
~ law of the landa phrase used in the Magna Carta to refer to the then established law of the kingdom (as distinct from Roman or civil law); today it refers to fundamental principles of justice commensurate with due process.; "the United States Constitution declares itself to be `the supreme law of the land'"
~ martial lawthe body of law imposed by the military over civilian affairs (usually in time of war or civil crisis); overrides civil law.
~ martial lawthe body of law imposed by the military over civilian affairs (usually in time of war or civil crisis); overrides civil law.
~ commercial law, law merchant, mercantile lawthe body of rules applied to commercial transactions; derived from the practices of traders rather than from jurisprudence.
~ commercial law, law merchant, mercantile lawthe body of rules applied to commercial transactions; derived from the practices of traders rather than from jurisprudence.
~ military lawthe body of laws and rules of conduct administered by military courts for the discipline, trial, and punishment of military personnel.
~ military lawthe body of laws and rules of conduct administered by military courts for the discipline, trial, and punishment of military personnel.
~ law of moses, mosaic lawthe laws (beginning with the Ten Commandments) that God gave to the Israelites through Moses; it includes many rules of religious observance given in the first five books of the Old Testament (in Judaism these books are called the Torah).
~ islamic law, sharia, sharia law, shariah, shariah lawthe code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Mohammed.; "sharia is only applicable to Muslims"; "under Islamic law there is no separation of church and state"
~ statutory lawthe body of laws created by legislative statutes.
~ statutory lawthe body of laws created by legislative statutes.
~ securities lawthe body of laws governing the issuance and selling of securities.
~ securities lawthe body of laws governing the issuance and selling of securities.
~ tax lawthe body of laws governing taxation.
~ tax lawthe body of laws governing taxation.
~ domicile, legal residence(law) the residence where you have your permanent home or principal establishment and to where, whenever you are absent, you intend to return; every person is compelled to have one and only one domicile at a time.; "what's his legal residence?"
~ defendant, suspecta person or institution against whom an action is brought in a court of law; the person being sued or accused.
~ counsel, counselor-at-law, pleader, advocate, counsellor, counselora lawyer who pleads cases in court.
~ amicus curiae, friend of the courtan adviser to the court on some matter of law who is not a party to the case; usually someone who wants to influence the outcome of a lawsuit involving matters of wide public interest.
~ assignee(law) the party to whom something is assigned (e.g., someone to whom a right or property is legally transferred).
~ assignor(law) the party who makes an assignment.
~ attorney generalthe chief law officer of a country or state.
~ barristera British or Canadian lawyer who speaks in the higher courts of law on behalf of either the defense or prosecution.
~ chief justicethe judge who presides over a supreme court.
~ contractor(law) a party to a contract.
~ conveyancera lawyer who specializes in the business of conveying properties.
~ clienta person who seeks the advice of a lawyer.
~ defense attorney, defense lawyerthe lawyer representing the defendant.
~ divorce lawyera lawyer specializing in actions for divorce or annulment.
~ filera party who files a notice with a law court.
~ intervenor(law) a party who interposes in a pending proceeding.
~ jane doean unknown or fictitious woman who is a party to legal proceedings.
~ john doean unknown or fictitious man who is a party to legal proceedings.
~ judge advocate generalthe senior legal advisor to a branch of the military.
~ jurist, legal experta legal scholar versed in civil law or the law of nations.
~ justice of the peacea local magistrate with limited powers.
~ lawgiver, lawmakera maker of laws; someone who gives a code of laws.
~ attorney, lawyera professional person authorized to practice law; conducts lawsuits or gives legal advice.
~ legal representativea personal representative with legal standing (as by power of attorney or the executor of a will).
~ legislatorsomeone who makes or enacts laws.
~ liquidator, receiver(law) a person (usually appointed by a court of law) who liquidates assets or preserves them for the benefit of affected parties.
~ litigant, litigator(law) a party to a lawsuit; someone involved in litigation.; "plaintiffs and defendants are both litigants"
~ next friend(law) a person who acts on behalf of an infant or disabled person.
~ notary, notary publicsomeone legally empowered to witness signatures and certify a document's validity and to take depositions.
~ ordinarya judge of a probate court.
~ owner, proprietor(law) someone who owns (is legal possessor of) a business.; "he is the owner of a chain of restaurants"
~ legal assistant, paralegala person with specialized training who assists lawyers.
~ partya person involved in legal proceedings.; "the party of the first part"
~ complainant, plaintiffa person who brings an action in a court of law.
~ prevailing partythe party in a lawsuit who obtains a judgment in their own favor.
~ promulgator(law) one who promulgates laws (announces a law as a way of putting it into execution).
~ prosecuting attorney, prosecuting officer, prosecutor, public prosecutora government official who conducts criminal prosecutions on behalf of the state.
~ public defendera lawyer who represents indigent defendants at public expense.
~ refereean attorney appointed by a court to investigate and report on a case.
~ reversioner(law) a party who is entitled to an estate in reversion.
~ richard roean unknown or fictitious party to legal proceedings.
~ solicitora British lawyer who gives legal advice and prepares legal documents.
~ transferee(law) someone to whom a title or property is conveyed.
~ transferor(law) someone who conveys a title or property to another.
~ trial attorney, trial lawyera lawyer who specializes in defending clients before a court of law.
~ trial judgea judge in a trial court.
~ trierone (as a judge) who examines and settles a case.
~ legal guardian, trusteea person (or institution) to whom legal title to property is entrusted to use for another's benefit.
~ ux., uxor(legal terminology) the Latin word for wife.
~ vouchee(law) a person called into court to defend a title.
~ attestant, attestator, attestor, witness(law) a person who attests to the genuineness of a document or signature by adding their own signature.
~ witness(law) a person who testifies under oath in a court of law.
~ estate for life, life estate(law) an estate whose duration is limited to the life of the person holding it.
~ grant, assignment(law) a transfer of property by deed of conveyance.
~ inheritance, heritagethat which is inherited; a title or property or estate that passes by law to the heir on the death of the owner.
~ accretion(law) an increase in a beneficiary's share in an estate (as when a co-beneficiary dies or fails to meet some condition or rejects the inheritance).
~ bequest, legacy(law) a gift of personal property by will.
~ devise(law) a gift of real property by will.
~ jointure, legal jointure(law) an estate secured to a prospective wife as a marriage settlement in lieu of a dower.
~ heirloom(law) any property that is considered by law or custom as inseparable from an inheritance is inherited with that inheritance.
~ stake, interest(law) a right or legal share of something; a financial involvement with something.; "they have interests all over the world"; "a stake in the company's future"
~ vested interest(law) an interest in which there is a fixed right to present or future enjoyment and that can be conveyed to another.
~ relief(law) redress awarded by a court.; "was the relief supposed to be protection from future harm or compensation for past injury?"
~ actual damages, compensatory damages, general damages(law) compensation for losses that can readily be proven to have occurred and for which the injured party has the right to be compensated.
~ nominal damages(law) a trivial sum (usually $1.00) awarded as recognition that a legal injury was sustained (as for technical violations of a contract).
~ exemplary damages, punitive damages, smart money(law) compensation in excess of actual damages (a form of punishment awarded in cases of malicious or willful misconduct).
~ legal feea fee paid for legal service.
~ reversion(law) an interest in an estate that reverts to the grantor (or his heirs) at the end of some period (e.g., the death of the grantee).
~ escheata reversion to the state (as the ultimate owner of property) in the absence of legal heirs.
~ satisfaction(law) the payment of a debt or fulfillment of an obligation.; "the full and final satisfaction of the claim"
~ recognisance, recognizance(law) a security entered into before a court with a condition to perform some act required by law; on failure to perform that act a sum is forfeited.
~ recorda document that can serve as legal evidence of a transaction.; "they could find no record of the purchase"
~ legal relationa professional relation that is regulated by law (as between a lawyer and a client).
~ fiduciary relationthe legal relation that exists when one person justifiably places reliance on another whose aid or protection is sought in some matter.
~ bank-depositor relationthe responsibility of a bank to act in the best interests of the depositors.
~ confidential adviser-advisee relationthe responsibility of a confidential adviser to act in the best interest of the advisee.
~ conservator-ward relationthe responsibility of a conservator to act in the best interests of the ward.
~ director-stockholder relationthe responsibility of corporate directors to act in the best interests of stockholders.
~ executor-heir relationthe responsibility of an executor (or administrator) of an estate to act in the best interests of the heir.
~ attorney-client relation, lawyer-client relationthe responsibility of a lawyer to act in the best interests of the client.
~ partner relationthe responsibility of partners to act in one another's best interests.
~ receiver-creditor relationthe responsibility of receiver or trustee in bankruptcy to act in the best interests of the creditor.
~ trustee-beneficiary relationthe responsibility of a trustee to act in the best interests of the beneficiary.
~ legal statusa status defined by law.
~ civil deaththe legal status of a person who is alive but who has been deprived of the rights and privileges of a citizen or a member of society; the legal status of one sentenced to life imprisonment.
~ citizenshipthe status of a citizen with rights and duties.
~ marital statusthe condition of being married or unmarried.
~ marriage, matrimony, spousal relationship, wedlock, unionthe state of being a married couple voluntarily joined for life (or until divorce).; "a long and happy marriage"; "God bless this union"
~ bigamyhaving two spouses at the same time.
~ civil uniona voluntary union for life (or until divorce) of adult parties of the same sex.; "parties to a civil union have all the same benefits, protections, and responsibilities under Vermont law as spouses in a marriage"
~ common-law marriagea marriage relationship created by agreement and cohabitation rather than by ceremony.
~ rule of lawa state of order in which events conform to the law.
~ legal representationpersonal representation that has legal status.; "an person who has been declared incompetent should have legal representation"
~ diplomatic immunityexemption from taxation or normal processes of law that is offered to diplomatic personnel in a foreign country.
~ limitation(law) a time period after which suits cannot be brought.; "statute of limitations"
~ republishrevive (a cancelled will or a libel).
~ attornacknowledge a new land owner as one's landlord.; "he was attorned by the tenants"
~ proveobtain probate of.; "prove a will"
~ recusechallenge or except to a judge as being incompetent or interested, in canon and civil law.
~ filiatefix the paternity of.; "The court filiated the child born out of wedlock"
~ chargeinstruct (a jury) about the law, its application, and the weighing of evidence.
~ pleadenter a plea, as in courts of law.; "She pleaded not guilty"
~ plea-bargainagree to plead guilty in return for a lesser charge.; "If he plea-bargains, he will be sent to a medium-security prison for 8 years"
~ re-examinequestion after cross-examination by opposing counsel.; "re-examine one's witness"
~ take exception, challengeraise a formal objection in a court of law.
~ get offcause to be acquitted; get off the hook; in a legal case.; "The lawyer got him off, even though there was no doubt in everybody's mind that he killed his wife"
~ pardongrant a pardon to.; "Ford pardoned Nixon"; "The Thanksgiving turkey was pardoned by the President"
~ amnestygrant a pardon to (a group of people).
~ extenuate, mitigate, palliatelessen or to try to lessen the seriousness or extent of.; "The circumstances extenuate the crime"
~ convictfind or declare guilty.; "The man was convicted of fraud and sentenced"
~ reconvictconvict anew.
~ sentence, doom, condemnpronounce a sentence on (somebody) in a court of law.; "He was condemned to ten years in prison"
~ capacitatemake legally capable or qualify in law.
~ recusedisqualify oneself (as a judge) in a particular case.
~ file, registerrecord in a public office or in a court of law.; "file for divorce"; "file a complaint"
~ docketmake a summary or abstract of a legal document and inscribe it in a list.
~ docketplace on the docket for legal action.; "Only 5 of the 120 cases docketed were tried"
~ verifyattach or append a legal verification to (a pleading or petition).
~ take the stand, testify, bear witness, attestgive testimony in a court of law.
~ bear witness, evidence, testify, prove, showprovide evidence for.; "The blood test showed that he was the father"; "Her behavior testified to her incompetence"
~ pleadmake an allegation in an action or other legal proceeding, especially answer the previous pleading of the other party by denying facts therein stated or by alleging new facts.
~ demurenter a demurrer.
~ counterclaimset up a claim in opposition to a previous claim.
~ giveaccord by verdict.; "give a decision for the plaintiff"
~ stultifyprove to be of unsound mind or demonstrate someone's incompetence.; "nobody is legally allowed to stultify himself"
~ conveytransmit a title or property.
~ render, submitmake over as a return.; "They had to render the estate"
~ prefergive preference to one creditor over another.
~ probateestablish the legal validity of (wills and other documents).
~ bail outfree on bail.
~ gaol, immure, imprison, incarcerate, jail, jug, put behind bars, lag, remand, put awaylock up or confine, in or as in a jail.; "The suspects were imprisoned without trial"; "the murderer was incarcerated for the rest of his life"
~ bind overorder a defendant to be placed in custody pending the outcome of a proceedings against him or her.; "The defendant was bound over for trial"
~ aggrieveinfringe on the rights of.
~ adjective, proceduralrelating to court practice and procedure as opposed to the principles of law.; "adjective law"
~ substantive, essentialdefining rights and duties as opposed to giving the rules by which rights and duties are established.; "substantive law"
~ alienabletransferable to another owner.
~ unduenot appropriate or proper (or even legal) in the circumstances.; "undue influence"; "I didn't want to show undue excitement"; "accused of using undue force"
~ alterable(of the punishment ordered by a court) capable of being changed to one less severe.
~ unalterableof a sentence; that cannot be changed.; "an unalterable death sentence"
~ incompetent, unqualifiedlegally not qualified or sufficient.; "a wife is usually considered unqualified to testify against her husband"; "incompetent witnesses"
~ consensualexisting by consent.; "a consensual contract"
~ revertibleto be returned to the former owner or that owner's heirs.
~ fungibleof goods or commodities; freely exchangeable for or replaceable by another of like nature or kind in the satisfaction of an obligation.
~ ancestral, patrimonial, hereditary, transmissibleinherited or inheritable by established rules (usually legal rules) of descent.; "ancestral home"; "ancestral lore"; "hereditary monarchy"; "patrimonial estate"; "transmissible tradition"
~ intra vireswithin the legal power or authority or a person or official or body etc.
~ ultra viresbeyond the legal power or authority of a person or official or body etc.; "an ultra vires contract"
~ majorof full legal age.
~ nonaged, underage, minornot of legal age.; "minor children"
~ covert(of a wife) being under the protection of her husband.; "a woman covert"
~ mootof no legal significance (as having been previously decided).
~ testatehaving made a legally valid will before death.
~ intestatehaving made no legally valid will before death or not disposed of by a legal will.; "he died intestate"; "intestate property"
~ null, voidlacking any legal or binding force.; "null and void"
~ evidentiarypertaining to or constituting evidence.; "evidentiary technique"; "an evidentiary fact"
~ appellant, appellateof or relating to or taking account of appeals (usually legal appeals).; "appellate court"
~ residuaryentitled to the residue of an estate (after payment of debts and specific gifts).; "the residuary part of the estate"; "the residuary beneficiary"
~ reversionaryof or relating to or involving a reversion (especially a legal reversion).; "reversionary annuity"; "reversionary interest"
~ therefor(in formal usage, especially legal usage) for that or for it.; "ordering goods and enclosing payment therefor"; "a refund therefor"
~ scienter(law) deliberately or knowingly.
n. (communication)2. lawlegal document setting forth rules governing a particular kind of activity.; "there is a law against kidnapping"
~ legal document, legal instrument, official document, instrument(law) a document that states some contractual relationship or grants some right.
~ anti-drug lawa law forbidding the sale or use of narcotic drugs.
~ anti-racketeering law, racketeer influenced and corrupt organizations act, rico, rico actlaw intended to eradicate organized crime by establishing strong sanctions and forfeiture provisions.
~ antitrust law, antitrust legislationlaw intended to promote free competition in the market place by outlawing monopolies.
~ statute of limitationsa statute prescribing the time period during which legal action can be taken.
~ constitution, fundamental law, organic lawlaw determining the fundamental political principles of a government.
~ public lawa law affecting the public at large.
~ blue lawa statute regulating work on Sundays.
~ blue sky lawa state law regulating the sale of securities in an attempt to control the sale of securities in fraudulent enterprises.
~ gag lawany law that limits freedom of the press.
~ homestead lawa law conferring privileges on owners of homesteads.
~ poor lawa law providing support for the poor.
~ riot acta former English law requiring mobs to disperse after a magistrate reads the law to them.
~ prohibitiona law forbidding the sale of alcoholic beverages.; "in 1920 the 18th amendment to the Constitution established prohibition in the US"
~ law, jurisprudencethe collection of rules imposed by authority.; "civilization presupposes respect for the law"; "the great problem for jurisprudence to allow freedom while enforcing order"
~ law, jurisprudencethe collection of rules imposed by authority.; "civilization presupposes respect for the law"; "the great problem for jurisprudence to allow freedom while enforcing order"
n. (cognition)3. law, natural lawa rule or body of rules of conduct inherent in human nature and essential to or binding upon human society.
~ concept, conception, constructan abstract or general idea inferred or derived from specific instances.
~ divine lawa law that is believed to come directly from God.
~ principlea basic truth or law or assumption.; "the principles of democracy"
~ sound lawa law describing sound changes in the history of a language.
n. (cognition)4. law, law of naturea generalization that describes recurring facts or events in nature.; "the laws of thermodynamics"
~ concept, conception, constructan abstract or general idea inferred or derived from specific instances.
~ all-or-none law(neurophysiology) a nerve impulse resulting from a weak stimulus is just as strong as a nerve impulse resulting from a strong stimulus.
~ principle, rulea rule or law concerning a natural phenomenon or the function of a complex system.; "the principle of the conservation of mass"; "the principle of jet propulsion"; "the right-hand rule for inductive fields"
~ archimedes' principle, law of archimedes(hydrostatics) the apparent loss in weight of a body immersed in a fluid is equal to the weight of the displaced fluid.
~ avogadro's hypothesis, avogadro's lawthe principle that equal volumes of all gases (given the same temperature and pressure) contain equal numbers of molecules.
~ bernoulli's law, law of large numbers(statistics) law stating that a large number of items taken at random from a population will (on the average) have the population statistics.
~ benford's lawa law used by auditors to identify fictitious populations of numbers; applies to any population of numbers derived from other numbers.; "Benford's law holds that 30% of the time the first non-zero digit of a derived number will be 1 and it will be 9 only 4.6% of the time"
~ bose-einstein statistics(physics) statistical law obeyed by a system of particles whose wave function is not changed when two particles are interchanged (the Pauli exclusion principle does not apply).
~ boyle's law, mariotte's lawthe pressure of an ideal gas at constant temperature varies inversely with the volume.
~ coulomb's lawa fundamental principle of electrostatics; the force of attraction or repulsion between two charged particles is directly proportional to the product of the charges and inversely proportional to the distance between them; principle also holds for magnetic poles.
~ dalton's law of partial pressures, law of partial pressures, dalton's law(chemistry and physics) law stating that the pressure exerted by a mixture of gases equals the sum of the partial pressures of the gases in the mixture; the pressure of a gas in a mixture equals the pressure it would exert if it occupied the same volume alone at the same temperature.
~ distribution law(chemistry) the total energy in an assembly of molecules is not distributed equally but is distributed around an average value according to a statistical distribution.
~ equilibrium law, law of chemical equilibrium(chemistry) the principle that (at chemical equilibrium) in a reversible reaction the ratio of the rate of the forward reaction to the rate of the reverse reaction is a constant for that reaction.
~ fechner's law, weber-fechner law(psychophysics) the concept that the magnitude of a subjective sensation increases proportional to the logarithm of the stimulus intensity; based on early work by E. H. Weber.
~ fermi-dirac statistics(physics) law obeyed by a systems of particles whose wave function changes when two particles are interchanged (the Pauli exclusion principle applies).
~ charles's law, gay-lussac's law, law of volumes(physics) the density of an ideal gas at constant pressure varies inversely with the temperature.
~ henry's law(chemistry) law formulated by the English chemist William Henry; the amount of a gas that will be absorbed by water increases as the gas pressure increases.
~ hooke's law(physics) the principle that (within the elastic limit) the stress applied to a solid is proportional to the strain produced.
~ hubble's law, hubble law(astronomy) the generalization that the speed of recession of distant galaxies (the red shift) is proportional to their distance from the observer.
~ kepler's law, kepler's law of planetary motion(astronomy) one of three empirical laws of planetary motion stated by Johannes Kepler.
~ kirchhoff's laws(physics) two laws governing electric networks in which steady currents flow: the sum of all the currents at a point is zero and the sum of the voltage gains and drops around any closed circuit is zero.
~ law of averagesa law affirming that in the long run probabilities will determine performance.
~ law of constant proportion, law of definite proportions(chemistry) law stating that every pure substance always contains the same elements combined in the same proportions by weight.
~ law of diminishing returnsa law affirming that to continue after a certain level of performance has been reached will result in a decline in effectiveness.
~ law of effect(psychology) the principle that behaviors are selected by their consequences; behavior having good consequences tends to be repeated whereas behavior that leads to bad consequences is not repeated.
~ law of equivalent proportions, law of reciprocal proportions(chemistry) law stating that the proportions in which two elements separately combine with a third element are also the proportions in which they combine together.
~ law of gravitation, newton's law of gravitation(physics) the law that states any two bodies attract each other with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
~ dalton's law, law of multiple proportions(chemistry) law stating that when two elements can combine to form more than one compound the amounts of one of them that combines with a fixed amount of the other will exhibit a simple multiple relation.
~ law of mass action(chemistry) the law that states the following principle: the rate of a chemical reaction is directly proportional to the molecular concentrations of the reacting substances.
~ law of thermodynamics(physics) a law governing the relations between states of energy in a closed system.
~ mendel's law(genetics) one of two principles of heredity formulated by Gregor Mendel on the basis of his experiments with plants; the principles were limited and modified by subsequent genetic research.
~ law of motion, newton's law, newton's law of motionone of three basic laws of classical mechanics.
~ ohm's lawelectric current is directly proportional to voltage and inversely proportional to resistance; I = E/R.
~ pascal's law, pascal's law of fluid pressurespressure applied anywhere to a body of fluid causes a force to be transmitted equally in all directions; the force acts at right angles to any surface in contact with the fluid.; "the hydraulic press is an application of Pascal's law"
~ exclusion principle, pauli exclusion principleno two electrons or protons or neutrons in a given system can be in states characterized by the same set of quantum numbers.
~ mendeleev's law, periodic law(chemistry) the principle that chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers.
~ planck's law(physics) the basis of quantum theory; the energy of electromagnetic waves is contained in indivisible quanta that have to be radiated or absorbed as a whole; the magnitude is proportional to frequency where the constant of proportionality is given by Planck's constant.
~ planck's radiation law(physics) an equation that expresses the distribution of energy in the radiated spectrum of an ideal black body.
~ theorya well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world; an organized system of accepted knowledge that applies in a variety of circumstances to explain a specific set of phenomena.; "theories can incorporate facts and laws and tested hypotheses"; "true in fact and theory"
~ principle of relativity(physics) a universal law that states that the laws of mechanics are not affected by a uniform rectilinear motion of the system of coordinates to which they are referred.
~ power law, stevens' law, stevens' power law(psychophysics) the concept that the magnitude of a subjective sensation increases proportional to a power of the stimulus intensity.
~ weber's law(psychophysics) the concept that a just-noticeable difference in a stimulus is proportional to the magnitude of the original stimulus.; "Weber's law explains why you don't notice your headlights are on in the daytime"
n. (cognition)5. jurisprudence, law, legal philosophythe branch of philosophy concerned with the law and the principles that lead courts to make the decisions they do.
~ philosophythe rational investigation of questions about existence and knowledge and ethics.
~ contract lawthat branch of jurisprudence that studies the rights and obligations of parties entering into contracts.
~ corporation lawthat branch of jurisprudence that studies the laws governing corporations.
~ matrimonial lawthat branch of jurisprudence that studies the laws governing matrimony.
~ patent lawthat branch of jurisprudence that studies the laws governing patents.
n. (act)6. law, practice of lawthe learned profession that is mastered by graduate study in a law school and that is responsible for the judicial system.; "he studied law at Yale"
~ learned professionone of the three professions traditionally believed to require advanced learning and high principles.
~ law, jurisprudencethe collection of rules imposed by authority.; "civilization presupposes respect for the law"; "the great problem for jurisprudence to allow freedom while enforcing order"
~ traverse, denydeny formally (an allegation of fact by the opposing party) in a legal suit.
~ disbarremove from the bar; expel from the practice of law by official action.; "The corrupt lawyer was disbarred"
n. (group)7. constabulary, law, police, police forcethe force of policemen and officers.; "the law came looking for him"
~ personnel, forcegroup of people willing to obey orders.; "a public force is necessary to give security to the rights of citizens"
~ european law enforcement organisation, europolpolice organization for the European Union; aims to improve effectiveness and cooperation among European police forces.
~ gendarmerie, gendarmeryFrench police force; a group of gendarmes or gendarmes collectively.
~ mutawa, mutawa'eenreligious police in Saudi Arabia whose duty is to ensure strict adherence to established codes of conduct; offenders may be detained indefinitely; foreigners are not excluded.
~ mounties, rcmp, royal canadian mounted policethe federal police force of Canada.
~ new scotland yard, scotland yardthe detective department of the metropolitan police force of London.
~ secret policea police force that operates in secrecy (usually against persons suspected of treason or sedition).
~ schutzstaffel, ssspecial police force in Nazi Germany founded as a personal bodyguard for Adolf Hitler in 1925; the SS administered the concentration camps.
~ law enforcement agencyan agency responsible for insuring obedience to the laws.
~ posse, posse comitatusa temporary police force.
~ police officer, policeman, officera member of a police force.; "it was an accident, officer"